While from late 1787 up to his death in June 1789, Marie Antoinette's primary concern was the continued deterioration of the health of the Dauphin, who suffered from tuberculosis,[123] she was directly involved in the exile of the Parlement, the May Edicts, and the announcement regarding the Estates-General. In 1774, she took under her patronage her former music teacher, the German opera composer Christoph Willibald Gluck, who remained in France until 1779. As early as 1774, Marie Antoinette had begun to befriend some of her male admirers, such as the baron de Besenval, the duc de Coigny, and Count Valentin Esterházy,[41][42] and also formed deep friendships with various ladies at court. Her favourite objects filled her small, private chateau and reveal aspects of Marie-Antoinette's character that have been obscured by satirical political prints, such as those in Les Tableaux de la Révolution. Share. She became dauphine of France in May 1770 at age 14 upon her marriage to Louis-Auguste, heir apparent to the French throne. Marie-Antoinette was queen of France from 1774 to 1793 and is associated with the decline of the French monarchy. I will not enter into the details of the trial, which would … Despite his high clerical position at the Court, she never addressed a word to him. Après trois siècles de rivalités, la France et l’Autriche s'allient en 1756. Instead, she urged the necessity of an armed congress of the powers to negotiate from strength for the restoration of the royal authority. Initially banned by the king due to its negative portrayal of the nobility, the play was finally allowed to be publicly performed because of the queen's support and its overwhelming popularity at court, where secret readings of it had been given by Marie Antoinette. The primary motive for the queen's involvement in political affairs in this period may arguably have more to do with court factionalism than any true interest on her part in politics themselves,[66] but she played an important role in aiding the American Revolution by securing Austrian and Russian support for France, which resulted in the establishment of a neutral league that stopped Great Britain's attack, and by weighing indecisively for the nomination of Philippe Henri, marquis de Ségur as Minister of War and Charles Eugène Gabriel de La Croix, marquis de Castries as Secretary of the Navy in 1780, who helped George Washington to defeat the British in the American Revolutionary War, which ended in 1783. … [62] The new fashion called for a simpler feminine look, typified first by the rustic robe à la polonaise style and later by the gaulle, a layered muslin dress Marie Antoinette wore in a 1783 Vigée-Le Brun portrait. The "Carnation Plot" (Le complot de l'œillet), an attempt to help her escape at the end of August, was foiled due to the inability to corrupt all the guards. On the one hand, the Dauphine was beautiful, personable, and well-liked by the common people. Marie-Antoinette, par M Vigée-Lebrun en 1783. [18][19], The initial reaction to the marriage between Marie Antoinette and Louis-Auguste was mixed. In August–September, however, she successfully prodded him to resist the attempts of the Revolutionary National Assembly to abolish feudalism and restrict the royal prerogative. Because its capacity was exhausted the cemetery was closed the following year, on 25 March 1794. Furthermore, her execution was seen as a sign that the revolution had done its work. Search Now View more historical records for Marie Antoinette D AUTRICHE. Thanks to Barnave, the royal couple was not brought to trial and was publicly exonerated of any crime in relation with the attempted escape. Marie-Antoinette was not, at that time, interested in politics except as a way of securing favours for her friends, and her political influence never exceeded that formerly wielded by the royal mistresses of Louis XV. As a result of the public perception that she had single-handedly ruined the national finances, Marie Antoinette was given the nickname of "Madame Déficit" in the summer of 1787. The false accusations of the Affair of the Diamond Necklace damaged her reputation further. Title (object) Marie Antoinette d'Autriche Reine de France; Description. [20], Madame du Barry proved a troublesome foe to the new dauphine. [13], Following the Seven Years' War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, King Louis XV of France. Following the Seven Years' War and the Diplomatic Revolution of 1756, Empress Maria Theresa decided to end hostilities with her longtime enemy, King Louis XV of France. More than that, the decree by de Ségur, the minister of war, requiring four quarterings of nobility as a condition for the appointment of officers, blocked the access of commoners to important positions in the armed forces, challenging the concept of equality, one of the main grievances and causes of the French Revolution. Politically engaged authors have deemed her the quintessential representative of class conflict, western aristocracy and absolutism. [132][133][134] At the news, Paris was besieged by riots that culminated in the storming of the Bastille on 14 July. Dumouriez sympathized with the royal couple and wanted to save them but he was rebuffed by the queen. His relationship with the king was more cordial. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche (1755 -1793) Reine de France en 1774, et fille de l'empereur germanique François Ier. and could not return to France. At this point, the tide against royal authority intensified in the population and political parties, while Marie Antoinette encouraged the king to veto the new laws voted by the Legislative Assembly in 1792. In October 1789 popular pressure compelled the royal family to return from Versailles to Paris, where they became hostages of the Revolutionary movement. [202][203], Early on 16 October, Marie Antoinette was declared guilty of the three main charges against her: depletion of the national treasury, conspiracy against the internal and external security of the State, and high treason because of her intelligence activities in the interest of the enemy; the latter charge alone was enough to condemn her to death. [186], A week later, several of the royal family's attendants, among them the Princesse de Lamballe, were taken for interrogation by the Paris Commune. See more ideas about Marie antoinette, Marie antionette, French history. Her alleged remark “Let them eat cake” has been cited as showing her obliviousness to the poor conditions in which many of her subjects lived while she lived decadently, but she probably never said it. L'exécution de Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche est l'application de la condamnation à la mise à mort par guillotine de Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche, reine de France jusqu'à l'abolition de la monarchie le 22 septembre 1792. Date: 1788. Louis XVI was executed on orders from the National Convention in January 1793, and in August the queen was put in solitary confinement in the Conciergerie. [39] In her correspondence, Marie Antoinette's mother, Maria Theresa, expressed concern over her daughter's spending habits, citing the civil unrest it was beginning to cause.[40]. [172][173], Marie Antoinette continued to hope that the military coalition of European kingdoms would succeed in crushing the Revolution. Died in childhood; no issue. She has become one of the most well known women of all time, although the French people disliked her. [7][53][54] The child's paternity was contested in the libelles, as were all her children's. In fact, the design was copied from that of the prince de Condé. Marie Antoinette (2 November 1755 – 16 October 1793) was the last Queen of France, as the wife of King Louis XVI, before the monarchy was abolished in the French Revolution. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Lafayette's reputation never recovered from the event and, on 8 October, he resigned as commander of the Garde Nationale. [207][208], Preparing for her execution, she had to change clothes in front of her guards. The Portefeuille d’un talon rouge was one of the earliest, including the Queen and a variety of other nobles in a political statement decrying the immoral practices of the court. Here is a book which appears to be a drama about Marie-Antoinette and there is one about Louis XVI as well. De Marie-Thérèse d'Autriche, Elisabeth Badinter consacre bien plus qu'une biographie ordinaire. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. As a result, she became the main target of the popular agitators, whose animosity contributed to the legend that, on being told that the people had no bread, she callously remarked, “Let them eat cake!” (“Qu’ils mangent de la brioche!”). 7:13. [187][188], On 21 September 1792, the fall of the monarchy was officially declared and the National Convention became the governing body of the French Republic. At the end of 1791, ignoring the danger she faced, the Princesse de Lamballe, who was in London, returned to the Tuileries. Suffering from an acute case of depression, the king began to seek the advice of his wife. Transferred to the La Force prison, after a rapid judgment, Marie Louise de Lamballe was savagely killed on 3 September. Marie-Antoinette d'Autriche Son époque Evénements importants qui ont eu lieu à ce moment. One of the most important was Necker, the Prime Minister of Finances (Premier ministre des finances). The June 1791 attempted flight to Varennes and her role in the War of the First Coalition had disastrous effects on French popular opinion. She had played a decisive role in the disgrace of the reformer ministers of finance, Turgot (in 1776), and Jacques Necker (first dismissal in 1781). Marie-Antoinette was guillotined in 1793 after the Revolutionary Tribunal found her guilty of crimes against the state. [64], Repayment of the French debt remained a difficult problem, further exacerbated by Vergennes and also by Marie Antoinette's prodding[65] Louis XVI to involve France in Great Britain's war with its North American colonies. [193] In April 1793, during the Reign of Terror, a Committee of Public Safety dominated by Robespierre was formed, and men such as Jacques Hébert began to call for Marie-Antoinette's trial. Marie-Antoinette, in full Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne d’Autriche-Lorraine (Austria-Lorraine), originally German Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna von Österreich-Lothringen, (born November 2, 1755, Vienna, Austria—died October 16, 1793, Paris, France), Austrian queen consort of King Louis XVI of France (1774–93). Eventually, Marie Antoinette's reputation was no better than that of the favorites of previous kings. -Elle est exécutée en 1793. 3 autres suivront. Her name is associated with the decline in the moral authority of the French monarchy in the closing years of the ancien régime, though her courtly extravagance was but a minor cause of the financial disorders of the French state in that period. As soon as it opened on 5 May 1789, the fracture between the democratic Third Estate (consisting of bourgeois and radical aristocrats) and the conservative nobility of the Second Estate widened, and Marie Antoinette knew that her rival, the Duc d'Orléans, who had given money and bread to the people during the winter, would be acclaimed by the crowd, much to her detriment. Directed by Benjamin Lehrer. On November 1, 1661, Queen Marie-Therese, the shy, retiring Spanish wife of King Louis XIV of France, went into labor. [92][93] She sponsored the arts, in particular music, and also supported some scientific endeavours, encouraging and witnessing the first launch of a Montgolfière, a hot air balloon. In May 1790 the queen reached out to the comte de Mirabeau, a prominent member of the National Assembly who hoped to restore the authority of the crown. [6] Maria Antonia had a difficult but ultimately loving relationship with her mother,[7] who referred to her as "the little Madame Antoine". Afin de consolider ce rapprochement diplomatique, Louis XV et l’impératrice Marie-Thérèse décident de marier leurs enfants respectifs. The two strongest members of that government were Jean Marie Roland, who was minister of interior, and General Dumouriez, the minister of foreign affairs. [215] Her body was thrown into an unmarked grave in the Madeleine cemetery located close by in rue d'Anjou. "'16 ["Remain a good … [220], Marie-Antoinette is also known for her taste for fine things, and her commissions from famous craftsmen, such as Jean-Henri Riesener, suggest more about her enduring legacy as a woman of taste and patronage. [30], Upon the death of Louis XV on 10 May 1774, the Dauphin ascended the throne as King Louis XVI of France and Navarre with Marie Antoinette as his Queen. It was en vogue at the time for nobles to have recreations of small villages on their properties. 1877,0811.684. Dimensions: Height: 65.5 cm (25.7 in); Width: 54.4 cm (21.4 in) Collection: Palace of Versailles Native name: Château de Versailles: Parent institution: Versailles domain Location: Château de Versailles Place d’Armes 78000 Versailles, … [137][140][141], The abolition of feudal privileges by the National Constituent Assembly on 4 August 1789 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (La Déclaration des Droits de l'Homme et du Citoyen), drafted by Lafayette with the help of Thomas Jefferson and adopted on 26 August, paved the way to a Constitutional Monarchy (4 September 1791 – 21 September 1792). [59][60], Meanwhile, the queen began to institute changes in court customs. Reconstruction of the necklace that was at the centre of the scandal known as the Affair of the Diamond Necklace (1785). [131] It thus met at the tennis court in Versailles and took the Tennis Court Oath not to separate before it had given a constitution to the nation. In 1774, when her husband ascended the throne as Louis XVI, she became queen. Jun 4, 2020 - Explore Patty Durfee's board "Marie antoinette" on Pinterest. Her first official appearance in Paris on 8 June 1773 was a resounding success. 18th Century Fashion Renaissance Dresses Chronicles Of Narnia Rococo Style Art For Art Sake Travel Design Louis Xvi. EMBED (for wordpress.com hosted blogs and archive.org item tags) Want more? Omissions? Some rare finds from Tiny-Librarian. Portrait of Marie Antoinette, head and shoulders facing front, head tilted slightly to left, wearing a gown with a frilled open neckline, a cameo of Louis XV on a string of pearls around her neck, her hair dressed up with full curls, ropes of pearl, a … He was never officially king, nor did he rule. After many delays, the escape was ultimately attempted on 21 June 1791, but the entire family was arrested less than twenty-four hours later at Varennes and taken back to Paris within a week. Publication of such calumnies continued to the end, climaxing at her trial with an accusation of incest with her son. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Among the accusations, many previously published in the libelles, were: orchestrating orgies in Versailles, sending millions of livres of treasury money to Austria, planning the massacre of the gardes françaises (National Guards) in 1792,[201] declaring her son to be the new king of France, and incest, a charge made by her son Louis Charles, pressured into doing so by the radical Jacques Hébert who controlled him. [87], In 1783, the queen was busy with the creation of her "hamlet", a rustic retreat built by her favored architect, Richard Mique, according to the designs of the painter Hubert Robert. On 5 October, a crowd from Paris descended upon Versailles and forced the royal family to move to the Tuileries Palace in Paris, where they lived under a form of house arrest under the watch of Lafayette's Garde Nationale, while the Comte de Provence and his wife were allowed to reside in the Petit Luxembourg, where they remained until they went into exile on 20 June 1791. As queen, Marie-Antoinette was always unpopular. Artist. [146] Despite her dislike of him, she played a decisive role in his return to the office. Marie-Antoinette, in full Marie-Antoinette-Josèphe-Jeanne d’Autriche-Lorraine (Austria-Lorraine), originally German Maria Antonia Josepha Joanna von Österreich-Lothringen, (born November 2, 1755, Vienna, Austria—died October 16, 1793, Paris, France), Austrian queen consort of King Louis XVI of France (1774–93). On 11 July at Marie Antoinette's urging Necker was dismissed and replaced by Breteuil, the queen's choice to crush the Revolution with mercenary Swiss troops under the command of one of her favorites, Pierre Victor, baron de Besenval de Brünstatt. The royal family name was downgraded to the non-royal "Capets". Ninety minutes later, the palace was invaded by the mob, who massacred the Swiss Guards. [124][125], On the eve of the opening of the Estates-General, the queen attended the mass celebrating its return. Louis-Marie SICARDI (1743-1825) "Portrait de Marie Antoinette d'Autriche, 1819". [182], On 20 June 1792, "a mob of terrifying aspect" broke into the Tuileries, made the king wear the bonnet rouge (red Phrygian cap) to show his loyalty to the Republic, insulted Marie Antoinette, accusing her of betraying France, and threatened her life. She was brought before the Revolutionary tribunal on October 14, 1793, and was guillotined two days later. Diary and Correspondence of Count Axel Fersen: Grand … She was under constant surveillance, with no privacy. On lui reprocha ses liens avec l'étranger. Marie-Thérèse Charlotte, Louis-Jospeh Xavier François, Louis-Charles et [216], Both Marie Antoinette's and Louis XVI's bodies were exhumed on 18 January 1815, during the Bourbon Restoration, when the Comte de Provence ascended the newly reestablished throne as Louis XVIII, King of France and of Navarre. ), who was adopted in 1790 along with her two older sisters when her parents, an usher and his wife in service of the king, had died. Discover (and save!) This last accusation drew an emotional response from Marie Antoinette, who refused to respond to this charge, instead appealing to all mothers present in the room. This led in turn to a French declaration of war in April 1792, which led to the French Revolutionary Wars and to the events of August 1792, which ended the monarchy. [55][56], In the middle of the queen's pregnancy two events occurred which had a profound effect on her later life: the return of her friend and lover, the Swedish diplomat Count Axel von Fersen[57] to Versailles for two years, and her brother's claim to the throne of Bavaria, contested by the Habsburg monarchy and Prussia. The queen remained wary of Barnave and the Feuillants, and, although she acquiesced in the king’s acceptance of the constitution in September 1791, she warned Leopold II that she was not in favour of either their domestic or foreign policy. A second daughter, her last child, Marie Sophie Hélène Béatrix, Madame Sophie, was born on 9 July 1786 and lived only eleven months until 19 June 1787.