Most Englishmen now favoured a return to a stable and legitimate monarchy, and, although more was known of Charles II’s vices than his virtues, he had, under the steadying influence of Edward Hyde, his chief adviser, avoided any damaging compromise of his religion or constitutional principles. [23] The English Parliament resolved to proclaim Charles king and invite him to return, a message that reached Charles at Breda on 8 May 1660. lettre d'essayeur : h. calico 596. La question d’agrégation porte un titre, « Le siècle d’or en sursis. Sir Christopher Wren was commissioned to rebuild the cathedral. Rechercher dans la catégorie Charles Ii de Gonzague (1637-1665) parmi les milliers d'objets de collection publiés par nos collectionneurs ! Charles was born into political strife in Europe as the Habsburgs tried to control the entire continent. Charles dissolved the English Parliament in 1681, and ruled alone until his death in 1685. News of the failed plot was leaked. The questions encourage pupils to investigate the sources and make their own judgements on the evidence where possible. The years of his reign are known in English history as the Restoration period. [5] Charles I surrendered into captivity in May 1646. Partly to assuage public fears that the royal family was too Catholic, Charles agreed that James's daughter, Mary, should marry the Protestant William of Orange. D/ B. cuirassé à d., les cheveux longs, portant le collier de la Toison d''or. However, England entered the period known as the English Interregnum or the English Commonwealth, and the country was a de facto republic led by Oliver Cromwell. [40], Since 1640, Portugal had been fighting a war against Spain to restore its independence after a dynastic union of sixty years between the crowns of Spain and Portugal. On the last evening of his life he was received into the Catholic Church in the presence of Father John Huddleston, though the extent to which he was fully conscious or committed, and with whom the idea originated, is unclear. The lesson considers the measures taken by King Charles II in response to the plague and the reactions of some of the people to these restrictions, as well as providing contemporary comment on the situation. Birthplace: Madrid, Spain Location of death: Madrid, Spain Cause of death: unspecified. In 1665 England became involved in a war with Holland. [11] Nevertheless, the Scots remained Charles's best hope of restoration, and he was crowned King of Scotland at Scone Abbey on 1 January 1651. He was received into the Catholic Church on his deathbed. Le règne de Charles II (1665-1700) », et nous faisons figurer le lien pour accéder au texte définissant les … [47] Clarendon fled to France when impeached for high treason (which carried the penalty of death). Of Charles II, Wilmot supposedly said: We have a pretty, witty king, When a new Parliament assembled at Oxford in March 1681, Charles dissolved it for a fourth time after just a few days. Some even sought to confer the Crown on the Protestant Duke of Monmouth, the eldest of Charles's illegitimate children. [42] On 23 June 1661, a marriage treaty was signed; England acquired Catherine's dowry of Tangier (in North Africa) and the Seven islands of Bombay (the latter having a major influence on the development of the British Empire in India), together with trading privileges in Brazil and the East Indies, religious and commercial freedom in Portugal and two million Portuguese crowns (about £300,000); while Portugal obtained military and naval support against Spain and liberty of worship for Catherine. [66] During the 1680s, however, popular support for the Exclusion Bill ebbed, and Charles experienced a nationwide surge of loyalty. Charles II, byname The Merry Monarch, (born May 29, 1630, London—died February 6, 1685, London), king of Great Britain and Ireland (1660–85), who was restored to the throne after years of exile during the Puritan Commonwealth. He followed his grandfather Charles I, Duke of Mantua, in 1637 as ruler of these lands, the first ten years under regency of his mother Duchess Maria. Charles's coat of arms as Prince of Wales was the royal arms (which he later inherited), differenced by a label of three points Argent. Royalist supporters in the Spanish force were led by Charles's younger brother James, Duke of York. His other mistresses included Moll Davis, Nell Gwyn, Elizabeth Killigrew, Catherine Pegge, Lucy Walter and Louise de Kérouaille, Duchess of Portsmouth. Ils n’y revinrent qu’en février 1666. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. D/ B. couronné et cuirassé à d. R/ Ecu couronné, entouré du collier de la Toison d''or. He delighted and bored listeners with tales of his escape for many years. Charles II was the monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland during much of the latter half of the 17th century, marking the Restoration era. Originally published by Great Britain Record Commission, s.l, 1819. The prospect of a Catholic monarch was vehemently opposed by Anthony Ashley Cooper, 1st Earl of Shaftesbury (previously Baron Ashley and a member of the Cabal, which had fallen apart in 1673). [38] Plague cases ebbed over the winter, and Charles returned to London in February 1666. Charles Scott, Earl of Doncaster (1672-1674) 3. English; La maison; Nouveautés; À paraître; Collections; Revues Professor of History, King's College, University of London. [55], Although previously favourable to the Crown, the Cavalier Parliament was alienated by the king's wars and religious policies during the 1670s. [65], Fearing that the Exclusion Bill would be passed, and bolstered by some acquittals in the continuing Plot trials, which seemed to him to indicate a more favourable public mood towards Catholicism, Charles dissolved the English Parliament, for a second time that year, in mid-1679. Charles himself soon came to despise the "villainy" and "hypocrisy" of the Covenanters. Charles II, king of Spain from 1665 to 1700 and the last monarch of the Spanish Habsburg dynasty. After 1660, all legal documents stating a regnal year did so as if he had succeeded his father as king in 1649. He was destitute and friendless, unable to bring pressure against an increasingly powerful England. Shortly after his restoration as English monarch in 1660, King Charles II granted the territory of Carolina to a number of supporters who had helped him regain the throne. The Conventicle and Five Mile Acts remained in effect for the remainder of Charles's reign. Gender: Male Religion: Roman Catholic Race or. Whig Thought and the Revolution of 1688–91. In 1670, he entered into the Treaty of Dover, an alliance with his cousin King Louis XIV of France. Charles II entering London after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660, undated hand-coloured print. On 5 February, the Covenanter Parliament of Scotland proclaimed Charles II "King of Great Britain, France and Ireland" at the Mercat Cross, Edinburgh,[9] but refused to allow him to enter Scotland unless he accepted the imposition of Presbyterianism throughout Britain and Ireland. À la mort de son père Philippe IV, en 1665, c'est un Charles II âgé de quatre ans qui accède au trône d'Espagne. His safety was comfortless, however. The crowning of King Charles II, frontispiece from. Charles attempted to introduce religious freedom for Catholics and Protestant dissenters with his 1672 Royal Declaration of Indulgence, but the English Parliament forced him to withdraw it. Charles did not believe the allegations, but ordered his chief minister Lord Danby to investigate. Charles’s reign opened with a 10-year regency under the queen mother, during which the government was preoccupied with combatting the ambitions of the French king Louis XIV in … Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685)[c] was King of England, Scotland, and Ireland. The outbreak began in the late winter or early spring of 1665. 4 Manuscripts, European. Toggle facets Limit your search Subject. His efforts to extend religious toleration to his Nonconformist and Roman Catholic subjects were sharply rebuffed in 1663, and throughout his reign the House of Commons was to thwart the more generous impulses of his religious policy. He was bound by the concessions made by his father in 1640 and 1641, but the Parliament elected in 1661 was determined on an uncompromising Anglican and royalist settlement. Four or more generations of descendants of Charles II of England (1630-1685) if they are properly linked: 1. [78] He was buried in Westminster Abbey "without any manner of pomp"[77] on 14 February.[79]. The war did not go well, and in 1667 the Dutch fleet defeated the English navy. The lesson considers the measures taken by King Charles II in response to the plague and the reactions of some of the people to these restrictions, as well as providing contemporary comment on the situation. Le pape et le roi Journées qui ont fait la France; JOURNAL DE BOLIVIE (7 nov. 1966-7 oct. 1967) La Découverte/Poche L'Espagne, la France et l'Amérique latine : politi Collectif; La France, l'Espagne et l'indépendance du Maroc 1951-1958 - Michel Catala - Date de parution : 19/02/2015 - Les Indes savantes He was the playboy monarch, naughty but nice, the hero of all who prized urbanity, tolerance, good humour, and the pursuit of pleasure above the more earnest, sober, or material virtues. But though the early years of tawdry dissipation have tarnished the romance of his adventures, not all his actions were discreditable. [2] England, Scotland, and Ireland were respectively predominantly Anglican, Presbyterian, and Catholic. Charles II feared that a weakened England was now likely to be invaded by the French. Charles II of England (1630-1685) 2. Charles II became King of Spain at the age of three, after his father died in 1665. [25], He set out for England from Scheveningen, arrived in Dover on 25 May 1660 and reached London on 29 May, his 30th birthday. A political crisis that followed the death of Cromwell in 1658 resulted in the restoration of the monarchy, and Charles was invited to return to Britain. [2] Charles's heir presumptive was therefore his unpopular Catholic brother, James, Duke of York. The King, Charles II and his Court left London and fled to Oxford. James Scott, 1st Duke of Monmouth (1649-1685) 3. Restoration, Restoration of the monarchy in England in 1660. 706. With the expensive disasters of the Anglo-Dutch War of 1665–67 the reputation of the restored king sank to its lowest level. His subjects resented paying taxes that were spent on his mistresses and their children,[83] many of whom received dukedoms or earldoms. Charles was succeeded by his brother, who became James II of England and Ireland and James VII of Scotland. Omissions? [6] However, the royalist fleet that came under Charles's control was not used to any advantage, and did not reach Scotland in time to join up with the royalist Engager army of the Duke of Hamilton before it was defeated at the Battle of Preston by the Parliamentarians. Traditional celebrations involved the wearing of oak leaves but these have now died out. Tout le monde savait alors que la ville était frappée par une épidémie de peste. [43], The same year, in an unpopular move, Charles sold Dunkirk to his first cousin King Louis XIV of France for about £375,000. Charles II of Spain was born November 6, 1661 and became king in 1665 at the tender young age of four. [85] John Wilmot, 2nd Earl of Rochester, wrote more lewdly of Charles: Restless he rolls from whore to whore Produits similaires au L'Espagne de Charles II et la France 1665-1700. In 1665 the Great Plague struck London killing over 60,000 people, and was followed in 1666 by the Fire of London which destroyed a large part of the city including St Paul’s cathedral. Charles endeavoured to ensure that the Treaty—especially the conversion clause—remained secret. The public blamed Catholic conspirators for the fire,[41] and one Frenchman, Robert Hubert, was hanged on the basis of a false confession even though he had no hand in starting the fire. [51], Meanwhile, by a series of five charters, Charles granted the East India Company the rights to autonomous government of its territorial acquisitions, to mint money, to command fortresses and troops, to form alliances, to make war and peace, and to exercise both civil and criminal jurisdiction over its possessions in the Indies. Pannuti-Riccio 11; MIR 298/2. He tried to fight his father’s battles in the west of England in 1645; he resisted the attempts of his mother and his sister Henrietta Anne to convert him to Catholicism and remained openly loyal to his Protestant faith. He was brought up in the care of the Protestant Countess of Dorset, though his godparents included his maternal uncle Louis XIII and his maternal grandmother, Marie de' Medici, the Dowager Queen of France, both of whom were Catholics. In 1659, the Rump Parliament was recalled and Richard resigned. Découvrez vos propres épingles sur Pinterest et enregistrez-les. At around the same time, Anne Hyde, the daughter of the Lord Chancellor, Edward Hyde, revealed that she was pregnant by Charles's brother, James, whom she had secretly married. Depuis la fin du XIXe siècle, il n'existait pas, dans l'hi Charles II was born at St James's Palace on 29 May 1630. Updates? By the end of the battle Charles's force was about 1,000 and with Dunkirk given to the English the prospect of a Royalist expedition to England was dashed. [73] Charles had a laboratory among his many interests, where prior to his illness he had been experimenting with mercury. L'Espagne de Charles II, une modernité paradoxale 1665-1700. While the Spanish Empire, or 'Monarchy', remained an enormous global confederation, its economic supremacy was challenged by the Dutch Republic, and increasingly England, while Europe was destabilised by French expansion under Louis XIV. Silver 5.67 g Obv. Two distinct forms of dress for men in the reign of Charles II - immediately after the monarchy restoration short jackets and frilled ribbons abounded. His early years were unremarkable, but before he was 20 his conventional education had been completely overshadowed by the harsh lessons of defeat in the Civil War against the Puritans and subsequent isolation and poverty. Charles's wife, Catherine of Braganza, bore no live children, but Charles acknowledged at least twelve illegitimate children by various mistresses. As a result of the Second Dutch War, Charles dismissed Lord Clarendon, whom he used as a scapegoat for the war. The Scots forces were divided into royalist Engagers and Presbyterian Covenanters, who even fought each other. King Charles II and his family left London for Salisbury. [46] The Second Dutch War (1665–1667) was started by English attempts to muscle in on Dutch possessions in Africa and North America. 1665-1700, L'Espagne de Charles II, une modernité paradoxale, Jean-Claude Zancarini, Classiques Garnier. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. Charles II. The major foreign policy issue of his early reign was the Second Anglo-Dutch War. In the same year, he openly supported Catholic France and started the Third Anglo-Dutch War.[56]. Lord Danby and the surviving Catholic lords held in the Tower were released and the king's Catholic brother, James, acquired greater influence at court. Louis agreed to aid him in the Third Anglo-Dutch War and pay him a pension, and Charles secretly promised to convert to Catholicism at an unspecified future date. Theatres reopened after having been closed during the protectorship of Oliver Cromwell, and bawdy "Restoration comedy" became a recognisable genre. He was King of Scotland from 1649 until his deposition in 1651, and King of England, Scotland and Ireland from the 1660 Restoration of the monarchy until his death in 1685. Officially, the city recorded 68,596 deaths from the Great Plague, and the true death toll … It sought to discourage non-conformity to the Church of England and passed several acts to secure Anglican dominance. King but Not. Protestant conspirators formulated the Rye House Plot, a plan to murder him and the Duke of York as they returned to London after horse races in Newmarket. They appealed to King Charles II to confer the land in question to them, and in 1665 an amendment was made to the Charter of Carolina that stated the king was “graciously pleased to enlarge our said grant unto them.” The northern boundary was extended to what is … February 2nd, 1665 - New Amsterdam which has about 1500 inhabitants, is officially named New York, in honor of James, Duke of York, the brother of King Charles II February 6, 1665 - Officials of the Dutch West India Company require all the officers and settlers to take up arms against the English. Charles's eldest son, the Duke of Monmouth, led a rebellion against James II, but was defeated at the Battle of Sedgemoor on 6 July 1685, captured and executed. LUXEMBOURG, Duché, Charles II (1665-1700), billon sou de Luxembourg, 1700, Anvers . Tarì 1686. The Scottish army was routed by the English under Oliver Cromwell at Dunbar in September 1650, and in 1651 Charles’s invasion of England ended in defeat at Worcester. Posté le : 20-11-2013, 17h07 . Almost all of the ships were sunk except for the flagship, Royal Charles, which was taken back to the Netherlands as a prize. Monck and his army marched into the City of Lo… Today it is possible to assess him without the taint of partisanship, and he is seen as more of a lovable rogue—in the words of his contemporary John Evelyn, "a prince of many virtues and many great imperfections, debonair, easy of access, not bloody or cruel". Numerous accounts of his adventures were published, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the Restoration. The third son of Charles II Barbara Villiers, George was born on 28 December 1665 at Merton College, Oxford and named for his mothers cousin George Villiers, Duke of Buckingham. [80], Charles had no legitimate children, but acknowledged a dozen by seven mistresses,[81] including five by Barbara Villiers, Lady Castlemaine, for whom the Dukedom of Cleveland was created. His parents were Charles I, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and Henrietta Maria, the sister of the French king Louis XIII. During the 1640s, when Charles was still young, his father fought Parliamentary and Puritan forces in the English Civil War. [74] In the days between his collapse and his death, Charles endured a variety of torturous treatments including bloodletting, purging and cupping in hopes of effecting a recovery. The Restoration was accompanied by social change. However, the new Lord Protector had little experience of either military or civil administration. 1665 (4th March) Second Anglo-Dutch War The English used the Dutch opening fire on English warships as an excuse to declare war on the Dutch. At or around his eighth birthday, he was designated Prince of Wales, though he was never formally invested.[2]. G.H. [71], Charles suffered a sudden apoplectic fit on the morning of 2 February 1685, and died aged 54 at 11:45 am four days later at Whitehall Palace. Charles spent the next nine years in exile in France, the Dutch Republic and the Spanish Netherlands. 1665 (October) Parliament met in Oxford rather than London. Charles II était âgé de quatre ans à la mort de Philippe IV. Charles lived a life of leisure at Saint-Germain-en-Laye near Paris,[14] living on a grant from Louis XIV of 600 livres a month. By the time King Charles II fled the city in July, the plague was killing about a thousand people a week. 4 Biographies. The Corporation Act 1661 required municipal officeholders to swear allegiance;[32] the Act of Uniformity 1662 made the use of the Anglican Book of Common Prayer compulsory; the Conventicle Act 1664 prohibited religious assemblies of more than five people, except under the auspices of the Church of England; and the Five Mile Act 1665 prohibited expelled non-conforming clergymen from coming within five miles (8 km) of a parish from which they had been banished. [58] Clifford, who had converted to Catholicism, resigned rather than take the oath, and died shortly after, possibly from suicide. Montrose feared that Charles would accept a compromise, and so chose to invade mainland Scotland anyway. Cromwell defeated Charles II at the Battle of Worcester on 3 September 1651, and Charles fled to mainland Europe. Managing these issues was damaged by Mariana's power struggle with Charles' illegitimate half-brother, John of Austria the Younge… [12][d], Under the Instrument of Government passed by Parliament, Cromwell was appointed Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland in 1653, effectively placing the British Isles under military rule. GM 20K-135C [22] The new so-called Convention Parliament assembled on 25 April 1660, and soon afterwards welcomed the Declaration of Breda, in which Charles promised lenience and tolerance. The next day the couple were married at Portsmouth in two ceremonies—a Catholic one conducted in secret, followed by a public Anglican service. Read a biography about King Charles II whose restoration to the throne in 1660 marked the end of republican rule in England. Aussi, dès juillet 1665, le roi Charles II choisit de fuir Londres avec sa sœur. The years of his reign are known in English history as the Restoration period. ... Charles II returns to England from Holland and is restored to the throne. En septembre 1665, le taux officiel de mortalité atteignait même 7000 victimes par semaine, nombre considéré comme largement inférieur au taux réel. Les meilleures offres pour Authentique 1665 Charles II John eamonson de Seacroft Leeds York document Scellé sont sur eBay Comparez les prix et les spécificités des produits neufs et d'occasion Pleins d'articles en livraison gratuite! Inscrit le : 15-07-2012 Messages : 3077 . Who was the longest living monarch in Japanese history? [25], In the latter half of 1660, Charles's joy at the Restoration was tempered by the deaths of his youngest brother, Henry, and sister, Mary, of smallpox. Charles II lost little time in strengthening England’s global power. BRABANT, Duché, Charles II (1665-1700), AV 8 souverains (ducaton en or), 1698, Anvers. 346-1b; Delm. Charles II, 1665: An Act for restraining Non-Conformists from inhabiting in Corporations. Charles withdrew the Declaration, and also agreed to the Test Act, which not only required public officials to receive the sacrament under the forms prescribed by the Church of England,[57] but also later forced them to denounce transubstantiation and the Catholic Mass as "superstitious and idolatrous". Shaftesbury's power base was strengthened when the House of Commons of 1679 introduced the Exclusion Bill, which sought to exclude the Duke of York from the line of succession. [103], 17th-century monarch of England, Scotland and Ireland, Coat of arms of Charles II as king (outside Scotland), Coat of arms of Charles II used as king in Scotland, The traditional date of the Restoration marking the first assembly of King and Parliament together since the abolition of the English monarchy in 1649. In fact, the Cabal rarely acted in concert, and the court was often divided between two factions led by Arlington and Buckingham, with Arlington the more successful. Lord Shaftesbury was prosecuted (albeit unsuccessfully) for treason in 1681 and later fled to Holland, where he died. Dubbed the Cavalier Parliament, it was overwhelmingly Royalist and Anglican. Through six weeks of narrow escapes Charles managed to flee England in disguise, landing in Normandy on 16 October, despite a reward of £1,000 on his head, risk of death for anyone caught helping him and the difficulty in disguising Charles, who, at over 6 ft (1.8 m), was unusually tall. [88], Charles was universally beloved, beloved not only by the crowd of individuals with whom he came in contact, not only adored by his dependents, but thoroughly popular with the mass of his subjects and particularly with the poorer populace of London who knew him best.[89]. But the sacrifice of friends and principles was futile and left him deeply embittered. On 29 May 1660, his 30th birthday, he was received in London to public acclaim. His mother ruled as a regent for 10 years until Charles was a teenager. Menu. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Le petit Charles, alors qu’il accède au trône à l’âge de quatre ans, il est tout maigre, très faible avec disons-le des capacités intellectuelles et physiques très limitées. Covers the period from October 1665 to July 1666. To lay foundations for a new beginning, envoys of the States General appeared in November 1660 with the Dutch Gift. Diana's son, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, second in line to the British throne, is likely to be the first British monarch descended from Charles II. With Cromwell's forces threatening Charles's position in Scotland, it was decided to mount an attack on England. During the civil and military unrest that followed, George Monck, the Governor of Scotland, was concerned that the nation would descend into anarchy. Though not averse to his escape being ascribed to divine providence, Charles himself seems to have delighted most in his ability to sustain his disguise as a man of ordinary origins, and to move unrecognised through his realm. By 1674 England had gained nothing from the Anglo-Dutch War, and the Cavalier Parliament refused to provide further funds, forcing Charles to make peace. PA2/24, f.97r-97v. 1 real 1697 l h. lima 1 real 1697 l h. lima. 1665 (July) The Lord Mayor of London, Thomas Bloodworth, ordered all stray dogs and cats be killed since he believed that they were spreading the disease. Charles acquiesced to the Clarendon Code even though he favoured a policy of religious tolerance. In defiance of the royal will, the House of Commons declared that the dissolution of Parliament did not interrupt impeachment proceedings, and that the pardon was therefore invalid. Charles was incapable of thrift; he found it painful to refuse petitioners. As he had been required to do so many times during his reign, Charles bowed to the wishes of his opponents, committing Danby to the Tower of London, in which he was held for another five years. [18] At the Battle of the Dunes in 1658, as part of the larger Spanish force, Charles's army of around 2,000 clashed with Commonwealth troops fighting with the French. Disillusioned by the Covenanters, in October Charles attempted to escape from them and rode north to join with an Engager force, an event which became known as "the Start", but within two days the Presbyterians had caught up with and recovered him. Upon his arrival in Scotland on 23 June 1650, he formally agreed to the Covenant; his abandonment of Episcopal church governance, although winning him support in Scotland, left him unpopular in England. The Acts became known as the Clarendon Code, after Lord Clarendon, even though he was not directly responsible for them and even spoke against the Five Mile Act.[33]. In 1679, Titus Oates's revelations of a supposed Popish Plot sparked the Exclusion Crisis when it was revealed that Charles's brother and heir presumptive, James, Duke of York, was a Catholic. Non-academic authors have concentrated mainly on his social and cultural world, emphasising his charm, affability, worldliness, tolerance, turning him into one of the most popular of all English monarchs in novels, plays and films.[87].